Sunday, October 28, 2007

HACIA UN FUTURO ENERGETICO SOSTENIBLE (INFORME DEL CONSEJO INTERACADEMIAS)
El líder de la oposición en España y el resto de nuestros políticos deberían, también en este tema, no preguntar a los familiares, conocidos y correligionarios (sorpendidos (todos los correligionarios se ven antes o después sorprendidos) de que los retos energéticos y medioambientales constituyan el primer desafío económico, social y tecnológico) sino estudiar, por ejemplo, los resultados publicados por el Consejo Interacademias, que incluye las Academias Nacionales de Ciencias de Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña, Francia, Alemania, Brasil, China e India.El Informe con el título usado para esta entrada fue preparado por un grupo presido por el premio Nobel de Física Steven Chu, que es un investigador en bioenergía y director del Lawrence Berkeley National Lab .

El Informe ("Iluminando el camino: Hacia un futuro energético sostenible") pide acción inmediata y simultánea en tres áreas:
Mejora de la eficiencia energética y reducción de la intensidad de carbono de la ceonomía mundial, incluyendo la introudcción con ámbito mundial de precios para las emisiones de carbono.
Desarollo de tecnologías para la captura y almacenamiento de carbono procedente de combustibles fósiles y especialmente de carbón.
El desarollo y la entrada en funcionamiento de fuentes renovables debe acelerarse de modo sostenible.
ESTAS SON SUS NUEVE CONCLUSIONES

CONCLUSION 1: LOS POBRES PRIMERO

Today, an estimated 2.4 billion people use coal, charcoal, firewood, agricultural residues, or dung as their primary cooking fuel. Roughly 1.6 billion people worldwide live without electricity. Vast numbers of people, especially women and girls, are deprived of economic and educational opportunities without access to affordable, basic labor-saving devices or adequate lighting, added to the time each day spent gathering fuel and water.

CONCLUSION 2: MEJORA DE LA EFICIENCIA Y REDUCCION DE LA INTENSIDAD DE CARBONO
Concerted efforts must be made to improve energy efficiency and reduce the carbon intensity of the world economy. Economic competitiveness, energy security, and environmental considerations all argue for pursuing cost-effective, end-use efficiency opportunities. Such opportunities may be found throughout industry, transportation, and the built environment. To maximize efficiency gains and minimize costs, improvements should be incorporated in a holistic manner and from the ground up wherever possible, especially where long-lived infrastructure is involved.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Promote the enhanced dissemination of technology improvement and innovation between industrialized and developing countries. It will be especially important for all nations to work together to ensure that developing countries adopt cleaner and more efficient technologies as they industrialize.Align economic incentives—especially for durable capital investments—with long-run sustainability objectives and cost considerations. Incentives for regulated energy service providers should be structured to encourage co-investment in cost-effective efficiency improvements, and profits should be delinked from energy sales.Adopt policies aimed at accelerating the worldwide rate of decline in the carbon intensity of the global economy, where carbon intensity is measured as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions divided by gross world product, a crude measure of global well-being. Specifically, the Study Panel recommends immediate policy action to introduce meaningful price signals for avoided greenhouse gas emissions. Less important than the initial prices is that clear expectations be established concerning a predictable escalation of those prices over time. Merely holding carbon dioxide emissions constant over the next several decades implies that the carbon intensity of the world economy needs to decline at roughly the same rate as gross world product grows—achieving the absolute reductions in global emissions needed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases will require the worldwide rate of decline in carbon intensity to begin outpacing worldwide economic growth.
Enlist cities as a major driving force for the rapid implementation of practical steps to improve energy efficiency.
Inform consumers about the energy-use characteristics of products through labeling and implement mandatory minimum efficiency standards for appliances and equipment. Standards should be regularly updated and must be effectively enforced.

CONCLUSION 3: TECNOLOGIAS DE CAPTURA Y ALMACENAMIENTO DE CARBONO

Technologies for capturing and sequestering carbon from fossil fuels, particularly coal, can play a major role in the cost-effective management of global carbon dioxide emissions. As the world’s most abundant fossil fuel, coal will continue to play a large role in the world’s energy mix. It is also the most carbon-intensive conventional fuel in use, generating almost twice as much carbon dioxide per unit of energy supplied than natural gas. Today, new coal-fired power plants—most of which can be expected to last more than half a century—are being constructed at an unprecedented rate. Moreover, the carbon contribution from coal could expand further if nations with large coal reserves like the United States, China, and India turn to coal to address energy security concerns and develop alternatives to petroleum.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Accelerate the development and deployment of advanced coal technologies. Without policy interventions the vast majority of the coal-fired power plants constructed in the next two decades will be conventional, pulverized coal plants. Present technologies for capturing carbon dioxide emissions from pulverized coal plants on a retrofit basis are expensive and energy intensive. Where new coal plants without capture must be constructed, the most efficient technologies should be used. In addition, priority should be given to minimize the costs of future retrofits for carbon capture by developing at least some elements of carbon capture technology at every new plant. Active efforts to develop such technologies for different types of base plants are currently underway and should be encouraged by promoting the construction of full-scale plants that utilize the latest technology advances.Aggressively pursue efforts to commercialize carbon capture and storage. Moving forward with full-scale demonstration projects is critical, as is continued study and experimentation to reduce costs, improve reliability, and address concerns about leakage, public safety, and other issues. For capture and sequestration to be widely implemented, it will be necessary to develop regulations and to introduce price signals for carbon emissions. Based on current cost estimates, the Study Panel believes price signals on the order of US$100–150 per avoided metric ton of carbon equivalent (US$27–41 per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent) will be required to induce the widespread adoption of carbon capture and storage. Price signals at this level would also give impetus to the accelerated deployment of biomass and other renewable energy technologies.Explore potential retrofit technologies for post-combustion carbon capture suitable for the large and rapidly growing population of existing pulverized coal plants. In the near term, efficiency improvements and advanced pollution control technologies should be applied to existing coal plants as a means of mitigating their immediate climate change and public health impacts.Pursue carbon capture and storage with systems that co-fire coal and biomass. This technology combination provides an opportunity to achieve net negative greenhouse gas emissions—effectively removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere


CONCLUSION 4: ALTERNATIVAS AL PETROLEO Y EL GAS
Competition for oil and natural gas supplies has the potential to become a source of growing geopolitical tension and economic vulnerability for many nations in the decades ahead. In many developing countries, expenditures for energy imports also divert scarce resources from other urgent public health, education, and infrastructure development needs. The transport sector accounts for just 25 percent of primary energy consumption worldwide, but the lack of fuel diversity in this sector makes transport fuels especially valuable.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Introduce policies and regulations that promote reduced energy consumption in the transport sector by (a) improving the energy efficiency of automobiles and other modes of transport and (b) improving the efficiency of transport systems (e.g., through investments in mass transit, better land-use and city planning, etc.).Develop alternatives to petroleum to meet the energy needs of the transport sector, including biomass fuels, plug-in hybrids, and compressed natural gas, as well as — in the longer run — advanced alternatives, such as hydrogen fuel cells.
Implement policies to ensure that the development of petroleum alternatives is pursued in a manner that is compatible with other sustainability objectives. Current methods for liquefying coal and extracting oil from unconventional sources, such as tar sands and shale oil, generate substantially higher levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutant emissions compared to conventional petroleum consumption. Even with carbon capture and sequestration, a liquid fuel derived from coal will at best produce emissions of carbon dioxide roughly equivalent to those of conventional petroleum at the point of combustion. If carbon emissions from the conversion process are not captured and stored, total fuel-cycle emissions for this energy pathway as much as double. The conversion of natural gas to liquids is less carbon intensive than coal to liquids, but biomass remains the only near-term feedstock that has the potential to be truly carbon-neutral and sustainable on a long-term basis. In all cases, full fuel-cycle impacts depend critically on the feedstock being used and on the specific extraction or conversion methods being employed.
NEEDED ACTIONS

Governments should introduce (further) policies and regulations aimed at reducing energy consumption and developing petroleum alternatives for use in the transport sector.

CONCLUSION 5: ENERGIA NUCLEAR CON CAUTELA
As a low-carbon resource, nuclear power can continue to make a significant contribution to the world’s energy portfolio in the future, but only if major concerns related to capital cost, safety, and weapons proliferation are addressed. Nuclear power plants generate no carbon dioxide or conventional air pollutant emissions during operation, use a relatively abundant fuel feedstock, and involve orders-of-magnitude smaller mass flows, relative to fossil fuels. Nuclear’s potential, however, is currently limited by concerns related to cost, waste management, proliferation risks, and plant safety (including concerns about vulnerability to acts of terrorism and concerns about the impact of neutron damage on plant materials in the case of life extensions). A sustained role for nuclear power will require addressing these hurdles.

CONCLUSION 6: APOYO DE LAS FUENTES ENERGETICAS RENOVABLES
Renewable energy in its many forms offers immense opportunities for technological progress and innovation. Over the next 30–60 years, sustained efforts must be directed toward realizing these opportunities as part of a comprehensive strategy that supports a diversity of resource options over the next century. The fundamental challenge for most renewable options involves cost-effectively tapping inherently diffuse and in some cases intermittent resources. Sustained, long-term support—in various forms—is needed to overcome these hurdles. Renewable energy development can provide important benefits in underdeveloped and developing countries because oil, gas, and other fuels are hard cash commodities.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Implement policies—including policies that generate price signals for avoided carbon emissions—to ensure that the environmental benefits of renewable resources relative to non-renewable resources will be systematically recognized in the marketplace.Provide subsidies and other forms of public support for the early deployment of new renewable technologies. Subsidies should be targeted to promising but not-yet-commercial technologies and decline gradually over time.Explore alternate policy mechanisms to nurture renewable energy technologies, such as renewable portfolio standards (which set specific goals for renewable energy deployment) and ‘reverse auctions’ (in which renewable energy developers bid for a share of limited public funds on the basis of the minimum subsidy they require on a per kilowatt-hour basis).Invest in research and development on more transformational technologies, such as new classes of solar cells that can be made with thin-film, continuous fabrication processes.Conduct sustained research to assess and mitigate any negative environmental impacts associated with the large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies. Although these technologies offer many environmental benefits, they may also pose new environmental risks as a result of their low power density and the consequently large land area required for large-scale deployment.
NEEDED ACTIONS

Governments should substantially facilitate the use—in an environmentally sustainable way—of renewable energy resources through adequate policies and subsidies. A major policy step in this direction would include implementing clear price signals for avoided greenhouse gas emissions.
CONCLUSION 7: LOS BIOCOMBUSTIBLES CONSTITUYEN UNA ALTERNATIVA PROMETEDORA PARA ABORDAR EL CAMBIO CLIMATICO Y LA SEGURIDAD ENERGETICA

Improvements in agriculture will allow for food production adequate to support a predicted peak world population on the order of 9 billion people with excess capacity for growing energy crops. Maximizing the potential contribution of biofuels requires commercializing methods for producing fuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks (including agricultural residues and wastes), which have the potential to generate five to ten times more fuel than processes that use starches from feedstocks, such as sugar cane and corn. Recent advances in molecular and systems biology show great promise in developing improved feedstocks and much less energy-intensive means of converting plant material into liquid fuel. In addition, intrinsically more efficient conversion of sunlight, water, and nutrients into chemical energy may be possible with microbes.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Conduct intensive research into the production of biofuels based on lignocellulose conversion.
Invest in research and development on direct microbial production of butanol or other forms of biofuels that may be superior to ethanol.
Implement strict regulations to insure that the cultivation of biofuels feedstocks accords with sustainable agricultural practices and promotes biodiversity, habitat protection, and other land management objectives.
Develop advanced bio-refineries that use biomass feedstocks to self-generate power and extract higher-value co-products. Such refineries have the potential to maximize economic and environmental gains from the use of biomass resources.
Develop improved biofuels feedstocks through genetic selection and/or molecular engineering, including drought resistant and self-fertilizing plants that require minimal tillage and fertilizer or chemical inputs.Mount a concerted effort to collect and analyze data on current uses of biomass by type and technology (both direct and for conversion to other fuels), including traditional uses of biomass.Conduct sustained research to assess and mitigate any adverse environmental or ecosystem impacts associated with the large-scale cultivation of biomass energy feedstocks, including impacts related to competition with other land uses (including uses for habitat preservation and food production), water needs, etc.
NEEDED ACTIONS

The S&T community and the private sector should greatly augment their research and development (and deployment) efforts toward more efficient, environmentally sustainable technologies and processes for the production of modern biofuels.

Governments can help by stepping up public research and development funding and by adapting existing subsidy and fiscal policies so as to favor the use of biofuels over that of fossil fuels, especially in the transport sector.

Governments should pay appropriate attention to promoting sustainable means of biofuels production and to avoiding conflicts between biofuel production and food production.

CONCLUSION 8: DESARROLLO DE NUEVAS INFRAESTRUCTURAS
The development of cost-effective energy storage technologies, new energy carriers, and improved transmission infrastructure could substantially reduce costs and expand the contribution from a variety of energy supply options.Such technology improvements and infrastructure investments are particularly important to tap the full potential of intermittent renewable resources, especially in cases where some of the most abundant and cost-effective resource opportunities exist far from load centers. Improved storage technologies, new energy carriers, and enhanced transmission and distribution infrastructure will also facilitate the delivery of modern energy services to the world’s poor—especially in rural areas.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Continue long-term research and development into potential new energy carriers for the future, such as hydrogen. Hydrogen can be directly combusted or used to power a fuel cell and has a variety of potential applications, including as an energy source for generating electricity or in other stationary applications and as an alternative to petroleum fuels for aviation and road transport. Cost and infrastructure constraints, however, are likely to delay widespread commercial viability until mid-century or later.Develop improved energy storage technologies, either physical (e.g., compressed air or elevated water storage) or chemical (e.g., batteries, hydrogen, or hydrocarbon fuel produced from the reduction of carbon dioxide) that could significantly improve the market prospects of intermittent renewable resources, such as wind and solar power.Pursue continued improvements and cost reductions in technologies for transmitting electricity over long distances. High-voltage, direct-current transmission lines, in particular, could be decisive in making remote areas accessible for renewable energy development, improving grid reliability, and maximizing the contribution from a variety of low-carbon electricity sources. In addition, it will be important to improve overall grid management and performance through the development and application of advanced or ‘smart’ grid technologies that could greatly enhance the responsiveness and reliability of electricity transmission and distribution networks.
CONCLUSION 9: IMPLICACION DE LA COMUNIDAD CIENTIFICA
The S&T community — together with the general public — has a critical role to play in advancing sustainable energy solutions and must be effectively engaged.As noted repeatedly in the foregoing recommendations, the energy challenges of this century and beyond demand sustained progress in developing, demonstrating, and deploying new and improved energy technologies. These advances will need to come from the S&T community, motivated and supported by appropriate policies, incentives, and market drivers.
LOS CIUDADANOS, INCREDULOS O NO, PUEDEN CONSULTAR EL ESTUDIO COMPLETO EN EL LINK ABAJO INSERTADO.LOS POLITICOS ESPAÑOLES NO LO NECESITAN: ELLOS PUEDEN CONSULTAR A SUS CORRELIGIONARIOS, CONOCIDOS Y AMIGOS Y DECIDIR SOBRE LA MARCHA.

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Saturday, October 27, 2007





















MEDIANOCHE, AT MIDNIGHT'S HOUR

A media noche levanté mi cabeza,
los búhos estaban buscando su pan
los zorros ladraron impacientes
a un oscuro destino que aún tan débiles soportaban-
Pensé en mis eternidades pospuestas
y en mis órdenes sólo a medias obedecidas-
El viento nocturno rugió en el claro del bosque.
Como si un pelotón de hombres estuviera allí,
la palabra fue susurrada entre las filas
y cada héroe tomó su lanza.
La palabra fue susurrada entre las filas:
Avanzar.

HDT

(Traducción Guillermo Ruiz)

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Saturday, October 20, 2007





Hermanas os he visto en la montaña
cuando vuestros mantos verdes ondeaban al viento
He visto vuestras huellas sobre la playa plana de los lagos,
menor que la del hombre, un rastro más etéreo.
He oído de vosotras como de una raza de antigua fama-
Hijas de los dioses a quienes un día debería encontrar-
O madres, podría decir, de toda nuestra raza.
Reverencio vuestras naturalezas como la mía,
aunque extrañamente diferente, igual y desigual a la vez
Vosotras sóis el único extranjero que se cruzó en mi camino
Aceptar mi hospitalidad-dejarme oír
el mensaje que traéis
Hechas diferentes de mí
Quizás diseñadas para ser
la criatura de un destino diferente.
No sé quiénes sóis que dóciles aguántais
codo con codo con el hombre en cada lugar.
Cuando formásteis la alianza de nuestra raza,
vosotras, hijas de la luna, en las noches plácidas,
saltásteis sobre las colinas y explorásteis la tierrra.
Reverlarme aquello que temo que no podáis decir
dónde estáis vosotras y no yo, dónde habitáis
que nunca puedo llegar allí.
Qué es lo que lo impulsa y aprecio tanto
Qué hace a los soles: el brillo o su energía para los cultivos
Qué es lo que lo impulsa y nunca debería olvidar,
Tengo hermanas sentadas esperando todavía por mí
y que son hermanas
El hombre adulto que puede luchar con valor,
a duras penas puede vivir en este mundo desolado,
y quien lo es, os defiende y allana vuestro camino.



HDT



(Traducción de Guillermo Ruiz)
Fotografía de Nives Meroi (expedición al Makalu, 2007)

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Friday, October 12, 2007




Poema: Instancias subjuntivas (III)


Transmuta en campos y hermosura

lo que no se expresa, mira

las mieses, nota el viento, siente

la luz, respira la médula

del mundo, rehaz lo podre

en enjambre y avanza, escucha

su zumbido, toma miel. Di

nombres compañeros, invoca

compañeras. No cejes. Girasoles

y cuervos velan tu corazón. Ablanda

el entrecejo, nutre lo magro. Dispón

vigas de cedro y tablazones

de haya, apacienta entre lirios, mas no olvides

que ira hay en la sabiduría, resplandor

de candela. Llama, di

al viento: ven viento, limpia

esos cielos. Reposa en él los ojos.

Olvido García Valdés

http://www.vivir-poesia.com/2003/04/olvido-garcia-valdes/


Cuerpos con marcas: una mayor

sequedad, cambios

en la composición de la dulzura,

menos fácil, o a la inversa:

mayor grado de lucidez

en los ojos, que al encontrar agradecemos

Olvido García Valdés



http://www.palabravirtual.com/index.php?ir=ver_poema3.php&pid=12041

Fotografía de Manuel Ferro

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Sunday, October 07, 2007



INMUNE QUIERE DECIR QUE LUCHA CONSTANTEMENTE















Susumu Tonegawa ( M) nació en Nagoya, Japón en 1939. Estudió la licenciatura de Medicina en Japón, trabajando en el departamento de Química de la Universidad de Kyoto. En 1963 se traslada a Estados Unidos comenzando a trabajar en el departamento de Biología de la Universidad de San Diego, California. Fue nombrado miembro del Instituto de Basilea y profesor de Biología en el Centro de Investigación del Cáncer del Instituto de Tecnología de Massachusetts.

Descubrió que ciertos elementos de la masa genética(ADN) podían trasferirse y reagruparse en el trascurso del desarrollo al pasar de la célula embrionaria al estado del linfocito B. Demostró que cada linfocito es capaz de formar el anticuerpo necesario, es decir el anticuerpo que el organismo necesita en cada momento. Ante una agresión por un antígeno determinado, se produce una respuesta celular del organismo y produce la recombinación adecuada de genes para formar el anticuerpo específico contra ese antígeno. Ante estos hallazgos Tonegawa llegó a formular la teoría de que la cantidad y calidad de la respuesta inmulógica está condicionada genéticamente.


Gracias a sus trabajos se ha podido conocer cuántos genes de inmunoglobulinas tiene el ser humano, y cómo dan lugar a multitud de anticuerpos específicos.

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susumu_Tonegawa



Los genes solían considerarse intocables en las células maduras. ¿Cómo llegó a la recombinación somática?



En los sesenta, había un gran debate sobre si la diversidad de los anticuerpos se generaba durante la evolución, lo que se llamaba la teoría de la línea germinal que defendía Leroy Hood en Caltech, o si se generaba durante la vida del individuo, somáticamente. Estuve en un congreso y los dos grupos debatían arduamente, pero sin pruebas reales.



Yo pensé que estaban locos, porque no se podía responder esta pregunta sin comparar la diversidad de genes y proteínas. Nadie lo había hecho, porque había que secuenciar los genes, y los inmunólogos no contemplaban este abordaje. Cuando planifiqué el experimento, yo no creía en el reordenamiento somático. Yo era partidario de la teoría de la línea germinal, porque en efecto, por entonces había un dogma: los genes no cambian durante la vida de un individuo.


Quería mostrar al mundo que los genes de las inmunoglobulinas no eran diferentes de cualquier otro gen. Por fortuna para mí, resultó ser justo al contrario. A la gente le costó creerlo, porque la inmutabilidad de los genes en la ontogenia era esencial para explicar el desarrollo: la única razón para que diferentes células produjeran diferentes proteínas era por Jacob-Monod; la expresión debía ser diferente en distintos linajes celulares, pero no los genes. El hecho de que los genes se movieran, y cambiase su actividad, era algo totalmente nuevo. Lo más inesperado resultó ser lo correcto.



Un editor de Nature apuntaba la semana pasada que las células madre existen para que el cuerpo no evolucione a lo largo de la vida de un individuo, preservando los genes inmutables, y que el sistema inmune es el único que evoluciona de forma darwiniana.



Es cierto. Pero también existen células madre en el sistema nervioso, y todavía no entendemos cuál es su propósito. Pero sí, el sistema inmune yo diría que es un microcosmos darwiniano de evolución, y literalmente ocurre en la vida de un individuo. Hay diversificación de genes de anticuerpos, y el patógeno invasor selecciona las células más aptas, que son las que se dividen.


El sistema inmune utiliza el mismo principio que la evolución. ¿Sabe por qué? Porque es el único sistema del cuerpo que tiene que tratar con lo inesperado, la inestabilidad. Las bacterias hacen copias de su ADN cada dos o tres horas, y con ello aparecen variaciones mutantes. Nosotros nos reproducimos solo en 20 o 30 años, así que no seríamos capaces de sobrevivir contra otros organismos que nos infectan con una tasa de diversificación tan rápida.


Para protegernos, la evolución inventó el sistema inmune para que podamos usar el mismo mecanismo de la bacteria, y mutar a su misma velocidad. Es una carrera. Somos un poco mejores que las bacterias en este sentido, y así podemos existir.

Susumu Tonegawa



¿NO RESULTA SIGNIFICATIVO QUE LA INMUNIDAD SOCIAL Y/O LEGAL, A DIFERENCIA DE LA INMUNIDAD BIOLOGICA, ESTE ASOCIDADA A LA AUSENCIA DE NECESIDAD DE DEFENDER LA PROPIA RESPONSABILIDAD?.¿NO DEBERIA ESTAR ASOCIADA LA INMUNIDAD SOCIAL A PRINCIPIOS DE LUCHA Y DEFENSA SIMILARES A LOS DE LA INMUNIDAD BIOLOGICA?.¿NO ES IGUALMENTE NECESARIA LA EVOLUCIÓN CONSTANTE DEL SISTEMA INMUNE SOCIAL GENERANDO LOS ANTICUERPOS NECESARIOS?.DONDE SE ENCONTRARAN LOS "GENES" NECESARIOS: ¿EN ALGUNA ESTRUCTURA FIJA O EN LA DISPUTA INSTITUCIONALIZADA POR LA IDENTIFICACION DE ANTIGENOS Y LA ELABORACION DE LOS ANTICUERPOS QUE FAVORECEN LA PERPETUACION DE LOS VALORES DEL SISTEMA?



Fotografía de J.Ramón Ladrá


La entrevista completa al Nobel puede consultarse aquí




http://www.publico.es/ciencias/4519

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Saturday, October 06, 2007
























GRAN AMIGO GREAT FRIEND



Camino en la naturaleza todavía solo
y no conozco a nadie
ni discierno traza o cualidad
de criatura alguna.


Incluso aunque todo el firmamento
cuelga sobre mí,
todavía carezco de la gracia
de un rostro inteligente y amable.

Todavía debo buscar al amigo
que se mezcla con la naturaleza,
que es la persona en su máscara,
este es el hombre que pido.

Que es la expresión de su significado,
que es la rectitud de su inclinación,
que es el niño crecido en su alimento.

El centro de este mundo,
el rostro de la naturaleza,
el lugar de la vida humana,
algún cimiento seguro
y núcleo de una nación-
o al menos un lugar propio.

Gemelos caminaríamos juntos
en cualquier estación
y veríamos esta naturaleza temporal
ir con estatura curvada.

HDT

(Traducción Guillermo Ruiz)

Georgia O'Keeffe (From the White Place, 1940)

http://www.phillipscollection.org/american_art/artwork/OKeeffe-From_White_Place.htm






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